A defensive “stand-by reaction” at critical moments of the reproductive life cycle

Joao Rosado de Miranda Justo

Resumen


Investigation about the psychological experiences of the reproductive life cycle showed that in critical moments special reactions may happen. These reactions seem to be defensive in nature, are set in motion in order to promote some kind of emotional protection and are performed in two opposite directions: a) a decreasing of the contact with aggressive impulses and b) an increasing of the use of rationalization and denial of frustrating situations. Examples of those rearrangements were observed at samples of: 1) pregnant women in obstetric high-risk consultation, 2) infertile couples waiting for infertility consultations and 3) pregnant women waiting for amniocentesis results. These data seem to be in accordance with the classical psychological points of view: a) gestation should be considered as a period of protection, b) during pregnancy a “primary maternal preoccupation” (Winnicot, 1958) emerges leading to the mobilization of all resources available for pregnant women and c) along gestational development psychological changes show how flexible maternal functioning may become. What was not expected is that in the absence of pregnancy, infertile couples should behave very similarly to what it is observed when pregnancy is in danger or when medical problems about the mother’s or the baby’s health arise in the horizon. Due to its “freezing” consequences upon emotional development we propose that this kind of reaction will be designated as “stand-by reaction”. 


Palabras clave


Pregnancy; psychological development; defense mechanisms; infertile couples; stand-by reaction

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Bibring, G. (1959). Some considerations of the psychological processes in pregnancy. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 14, 113-121.

Bibring, G., Dwyer, T., Huntington, D., & Valestein, A. (1961a). A study of the psychological processes in pregnancy and of the earliest mother-child relationship – I. Some propositions and comments. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 16, 9-24.

Bibring, G., Dwyer, T., Huntington, D., & Valestein, A._ (1961b). A study of the psychological processes in pregnancy and of the earliest mother-child relationship – II. Methodological considerations. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 16, 25-72.

Colman, A., & Colman, L. (1971). Pregnancy: the psychological experience. New York: Herder & Herder.

Domar, A., Clapp, D., Slawsby, E., Kessel, B., Orav, J., & Freizinger, M. (2000a). Impact of group psychological interventions on pregnancy rates in infertile women. Fertility and Sterility, 73, 805- 811.

Domar, A., Clapp, D., Slawsby, E., Kessel, B., Orav, J., & Freizinger, M. (2000b). The impact of group psychological interventions on distress in infertile women. Health Psychology, 19, 6, 568-575.

Ihilevich, D., & Gleser, G. (1986). Defense mechanisms: their classification, correlates, and measurement with the Defense Mechanisms Inventory. Owosso: DMI Associates.

Hosaka, T., Matsubayashi, H., Sugiyama, Y., Izumi, S., & Makino, T. (2002). Effect of psychiatric group intervention on natural-killer cell activity and pregnancy rate. General Hospital Psychiatry, 24, 353-356.

Justo, J. (1990). Gravidez e mecanismos de defesa: um estudo introdutório. Análise Psicológica, 4 (VIII), 371-376.

Justo, J. (2002). The psychological interpretation of clinical pathology in pregnancy: a continuity hypothesis. Revista Portuguesa de Psicossomática, 4, 109-130.

Justo, J. (2005). Trabalho de parto, parto e nascimento: a influência dos factores psicológicos. Arquivos de Psiquiatria, 2, 17-66 & Justo, J. (2006). Errata, Arquivos de Psiquiatria, 3, p. 143.

Justo, J., Melo, V., & Ferreira, A. (2010). Defence mechanisms of infertile couples vs. fertile couples. International Journal of Developmental and Education al Psychology, XXII, nº 1, V. 2, 433-442.

Leonardo, A. (2007). O processo evolutivo das representações mentais maternas da grávida com idade materna avançada que experiencia uma amniocentese. Tese de Mestrado em Psicologia Clínica, Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação da Universidade de Lisboa.

Stern, D., Robert-Tissot, C., Besson, G., Rusconi-Serpa, S., Muralt, M., Cramer, B., & Palacio, F., (1989). L’entretien “R”: une méthode d’évaluation des représentations maternelles. In (Eds.) S. Lebovici, P. Mazet, & J. P. Visler. L’évaluation des interaccions précoces entre le bebé et ses partenaires (pp. 151-177). Paris: Éditions Eshel/ Éditions Médecine et Hygiène.

Weerth, C., van Hees, Y., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2003). Prenatal maternal cortisol levels and infant behavior during the first 5 months. Early Human Development, 74, 139-151.

Winnicot, D. (1958). Primary maternal preoccupation. In Winnicot, D. Collected Papers: Through pediatrics to psychoanalysis. London: Tavistock.

Van den Bergh, B. R. (1990). The influence of maternal emotions during pregnancy on fetal and neonatal behavior. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 5, 119-130.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.17060/ijodaep.2014.n1.v4.604 Statistics: Resumen : 762 views. PDF : 1362 views.  

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.




Copyright (c) 2016 Joao Rosado de Miranda Justo

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 4.0 Internacional.

"International Journal of Developmental and Educational Psychology."

Revista Infad de Psicología.

ISSN digital: 2603-5987

ISSN impreso: 0214-9877